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Download PDF Die Rolle von Reinheit in der Ideologie der Nationalsozialisten (German Edition)

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September voraus. Die GOZ wurde novelliert. Lebensjahres des Zahnarztes. Tendenz steigend. Seitdem wird nur noch eine Hochschulzugangsberechtigung gefordert. Es wurde im Zuge der Bundeswehrreform mit Wirksamkeit zum Die Aufstellung erfolgte im Rahmen der Neuausrichtung der Bundeswehr am 1. Oktober in Koblenz. Die Funktion des Inspizienten wurde definiert.

Seitdem wird die Funktion von einem Zahnarzt im Dienstgrad Oberstarzt bzw. Flottenarzt wahrgenommen. Das Studium wurde in der Regel mit einer Diplomarbeit abgeschlossen Dipl. Im Rahmen des 1. Stomatologenkongresses wurde am 7. Andere wurden auf die Bespitzelung ihrer Kollegen angesetzt. Januar eingerichtet. Jahrhunderts gab es mehrere Versuche, dieses System zu reformieren. Eine landesweite obligatorische Krankenversicherung konnte erst in Kraft gesetzt werden.

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Beisiegel: Promovieren in der Medizin. Die Position des Wissenschaftsrates. Abgerufen am 3. Januar ]. The brightness evoked by a given luminance depends on the circumstances at the time of viewing. Since these circumstances are, in general, different according to whether the subject or the print is viewed, the effect is different in the two cases and the order of the two brightnesses may actually be inverted.

In order to understand the failure of photography faithfully to reproduce the brightness of the original, it is necessary to review the lack of correspondence between luminance and brightness in vision. The fundamental question here, however, is why the print does not have the same brightnesses as the subject even when the luminances are exactly matched. They may be summarized conveniently in the statement that objects in nature tend to be perceived by the mind more nearly as they exist in space than as the two-dimensional projection formed by the eye.

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The process by which this occurs is one of comparison, combined with appreciation of perspective. The magnitude of these objective mental corrections is large. A person at yards forms a retinal image which is one-tenth the size formed at 10 yards and yet he looks scarcely any smaller — he simply looks farther away.

Really this is a single example of the general interpretation of space as three-dimensional through familiarity with the effect of perspective. For relatively near objects, the interpretation is believed to take place through cortical fusion of differing retinal images in the two eyes. For more distant objects, it must occur through perspective. Occasionally the perception is noticeably wrong, as in the apparent meeting of railroad tracks in the distance, but normally it is sufficiently accurate to be of great aid in daily life.

Other phenomena of vision may be considered as constancy effects. These phenomena, which are apparent even to the casual observer, are probably all learned reactions and may be understood readily by their utility to the individual and their relation to known laws of perspective and of relative motion. Perspective relations can be well reproduced by photography and it is not surprising therefore to find that, by the proper choice of the point of view and the focal length of the lens, the size and shape of objects may be reproduced satisfactorily in two dimensions.

To secure the effect of depth for near objects requires stereoscopic reproduction.

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Relative motion phenomena in which the observer is supposed to be moving are not usually well represented by motion pictures because the observer does not have the sensations accompanying motion. The extension of the constancy principle to brightness and to chromaticity which has been made in recent years 2 rests on somewhat less secure ground.

A very close parallel can be drawn between the constancy of the chromaticity and the brightness of an object and the constancy of its size and shape. For practical purposes, this is undoubtedly the most satisfactory explanation of the discrepancy between the perceived effect and the actual physical phenomenon. On the other hand, it has not been demonstrated that it is necessary to assume psychological processes in order to explain the observed facts.

In photography we are concerned with the reproduction of the visual effects since they are important factors in the recognition of objects. It does not matter greatly which approach is used in explaining them so long as it will satisfactorily include all the facts. If a white or a light gray surface is placed in a shadow and a similar surface is placed in full illumination, the observer will have no difficulty in recognizing their identity.

White surfaces will continue to look white under both conditions and the lightness of the gray will not appear to be appreciably different. Many manifestations of this fundamental fact may be demonstrated and the magnitude of the luminance difference between two surfaces, both of which may be perceived as white, is startling to the uninitiated.

It is not difficult to produce a luminance ratio of to 1 and yet have both surfaces readily recognizable as white. To say that their brightness is the same under these conditions would be an exaggeration since the shadowed white is always noticeably darker.


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It is, however, much brighter than a gray which reflects the same amount of light but is placed in the illuminated part of the field. It should be noted that brightness and lightness must be distinguished in such a case since the object which appears less bright is also perceived as lighter than the other. An extension of this demonstration is even more startling.

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Under the above conditions a good black in the illuminated area may actually reflect more light to the eye i. In this case the black has very low brightness and lightness compared to the white. There is, therefore, no direct relation between brightness and luminance in a non-uniformly lighted scene. In uniform illumination, which is rare and should be considered as a special case, lightness, brightness, and luminance always occur in the same order.

An illuminated scene has two characteristics by which it is seen. A certain percentage of the light which falls on the objects in the scene is reflected and a certain quantity of light is reflected from the scene as a whole. The first of these distinguishes one object from the objects in its immediate vicinity, and the second is the actual stimulus for the eye of the observer. If these characteristics are called reflectance and luminance, respectively, then it may be stated that the perceived lightness of a gray surface having a given reflectance at a given luminance in a non-uniformly lighted scene will always fall between that given by the same reflectance at the high illumination and the same luminance at the low illumination.

Thus a medium gray surface in shadow will appear to match a gray in the light which has a lower reflectance but a higher luminance. This is the equivalent of saying that a shadowed or less strongly illuminated object tends to be judged by its reflectance rather than by its luminance.

This is not strange when it is realized that it can only be distinguished from its background at all if it has a different reflectance. The degree to which the brightness depends on the one factor or the other is determined almost entirely by circumstances at the time of viewing.

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The most important of these is the extent to which it is apparent to the observer that the illumination is different on the two surfaces being compared. Scarcely less important, and in many cases essential is a continuity of background so that the surfaces are either seen against a surface which is common to both or against surfaces which do have this relation to a common background.

The role of the observer appears not to have been thoroughly investigated. If conditions are such that the observer can make a quantitative setting, different observers will make matches varying all the way from equations of reflectance to equations of luminance. Some observers can, on request, make two settings, one of which approaches a reflectance match and the other a luminance match.

Children and untrained observers uniformly tend to make reflectance matches. It is this latter fact, namely, that lack of training and experience tends to produce the closest approach to brightness constancy that sets this phenomenon apart from that of size and shape constancy in which the reverse is true. A psychological effect might be expected to be more complete in an adult. A somewhat better picture of the subject and one which is directly applicable to photography can be obtained by a more careful consideration of what is meant by the terms white, gray, and black.

The variables on which they depend give at least a partial clue to the results of lightness matches. There has been much discussion in the literature concerning the nature of gray. It has generally been assumed that one or another type of retinal or cortical mechanism is involved. For the present purpose it is not necessary to take any stand on this subject but it is essential to consider carefully the facts insofar as they are known. It has been noted above that brightness is not directly related to luminance. This follows from the fact that a black surface in the light can be more luminous but darker than a white surface seen at the same time in shadow.

Furthermore, this is a general phenomenon of which examples may be multiplied indefinitely. Two neutral surfaces of any reflectance can be made to have any desired lightness with respect to each other if each of them and their surroundings are separately and properly lighted. White, gray, and black, therefore, have no physical existence in nature. They are descriptive terms arising from the perception of lightness.