Five items are positive, such as You calmly discuss something together, and five items are negative, such as "You disagree about something important. It is a count of number of political activities engaged in. Note: This scale wasn't a previously established scale, but was created when the survey was created PI: Robert D. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. ARDA Dictionary.
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Concerning religion, a central question concerns whether religious participation facilitates only participation within the context of the religious group or tradition or also leads to higher levels of extra-group engagement. The research literature in this area has found some difference depending on the type of religious engagement one participates in.
Religious Preference: This refers to an "individual's evaluations of competing religious goods" Sherkat Religious preference as a concept is used to explain why individuals participate in different religions or choose varying styles of religion. Supply-Side Model of Religion: Supply-side models of religion suggest that changes in religious markets impact religious participation or vitality in society. Specifically, the number of religious organizations, services, and settings play an important role in religious participation Olson Stark and Finke argue that the unregulated religious economy in the United States historically allowed the supply of religions to match the high demand for religion.
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This perspective is debated by demand-side theories of religion, like secularization theory see Supply and Demand, Religious. Extrinsic Religion: Using religious participation and affiliation to achieve practical rewards, such as social status. This is in contrast to intrinsic religion, which pertains to internal motivations for religious activity.
The concepts of extrinsic religion and intrinsic religion was developed by Gordon Allport Differences between intrinsic and extrinsic religion can be understood as differences in religious orientation Allport Confirmation: This ceremony marks the reception of young Christians usually in their early teen years into full participation in the life of the church. Confirmation is most often celebrated in the Roman Catholic , Episcopal , Lutheran , Methodist and Presbyterian denominations Smith and Green Supply and Demand, Religious: Supply-side and demand-side approaches to religious participation offer two competing perspectives for changing religious landscapes.
Stark and Finke argue that the unregulated religious economy in the United States historically allowed the supply of religions to match the demand for religion, which they suggest is prevalent in all societies. Olson notes that it is very difficult to distinguish which of the two causal scenarios is most correct.
Demand-Side Model of Religion: Demand-side models of religion emphasize that changes in religious demand impact religious participation or vitality in society Olson For example, religion may be in demand during times of greater stress or national trauma and perhaps in less demand over time due to secularization see Bruce This perspective is heavily challenged by supply-side theories of religion see Supply and Demand, Religious.
Warrior Monks: Japanese Buddhist monks who participated in armed violence in the eighth century. They were used to protect the monasteries' interests as they continued to grow.
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Most of the conflicts were between monasteries, but some warrior monks would threaten the government if their demands were not met. Warrior monks were particularly influential in eleventh through twelfth centuries, but their influence abated when Japan was unified in the sixteenth century Smith and Green Attendance at Religious Services, Measure of: This survey item measures how frequently respondents attend places of worship.
It is debatable how much measurement error is present in self-reported attendance, as people tend to over-estimate their participation see Smith Interactive Ritual Chain Theory: Interactive Ritual Chain Theory IRC is a perspective focusing on the interactions and the emotional input and feedback of individuals within those interactions. These factors include the physical co-presence of interactants, exclusivity of the group, a mutual focus and mood and bodily synchronization. Importantly, IRC theory also situates religious actors in social space and outlines the linkages between ritual, affect and belief.
Blasi Ph. The ARDA is not responsible for content or typographical errors. The groups reported a total of , congregations with ,, adherents, comprising The program develops modules that deal with areas of interest in the social sciences.
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These modules supplement regular national surveys. Similar to the and ISSP religion modules, this data set includes numerous measures of religious affiliation, beliefs, and participation. It also contains measures of several social and political attitudes.
Finally, the data set contains basic demographic information such as age, sex, education, and occupation. For more information, visit the ISSP website. Funded By: The research organization in each country funds all of its own costs and the merging of the data into a cross-national data set is performed by the Zentralarchiv fuer Empirische Sozialforschung, University of Cologne. Add Health combines longitudinal survey data on respondents' social, economic, psychological and physical well-being with contextual data on the family, neighborhood, community, school, friendships, peer groups, and romantic relationships, providing unique opportunities to study how social environments and behaviors in adolescence are linked to health and achievement outcomes in young adulthood.
The fourth wave of interviews expanded the collection of biological data in Add Health to understand the social, behavioral, and biological linkages in health trajectories as the Add Health cohort ages through adulthood. The fifth wave of data collection is planned to begin in Initiated in and supported by three program project grants from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NICHD with co-funding from 23 other federal agencies and foundations, Add Health is the largest, most comprehensive longitudinal survey of adolescents ever undertaken.
Beginning with an in-school questionnaire administered to a nationally representative sample of students in grades , the study followed up with a series of in-home interviews conducted in , , , and Other sources of data include questionnaires for parents, siblings, fellow students, and school administrators and interviews with romantic partners. Preexisting databases provide information about neighborhoods and communities.
Add Health was developed in response to a mandate from the U. Congress to fund a study of adolescent health, and Waves I and II focus on the forces that may influence adolescents' health and risk behaviors, including personal traits, families, friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups, schools, neighborhoods, and communities. As participants have aged into adulthood, however, the scientific goals of the study have expanded and evolved.
Follow up at Wave IV has enabled researchers to study developmental and health trajectories across the life course of adolescence into adulthood using an integrative approach that combines the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences in its research objectives, design, data collection, and analysis. To provide an array of community characteristics by which researchers may investigate the nature of such contextual influences for a wide range of adolescent health behaviors, selected contextual variables have been calculated and compiled.
Included in this dataset are the in-home interviews, in-school questionnaire, and parent questionnaire. This network data includes network variables constructed from the Add Health in-school data and friendship nominations.
It contains the adherent and congregation counts of religious groups that participated in at least one of the data collections. It is very important to understand how this file differs from its standalone counterparts, and its many limitations. Using these data for over-time comparisons without reading any documentation will likely result in inaccurate statistics. Turkey beyond the Maeander. Beattie , A. Bechtel , F.
Berlin , —4. Beckerath , J. Beebe , H. Beeston , A. Begrich , J. Tubingen , Bell , B. Benac , A. Sarajevo , Prehistorisko naselje Nebo i problem butmirske kulture. S 14 , Arheologija 13— Glasinac I. Studije o kamenom i bakarnom dobu u sjevero-zapadnom Balkanu , ff. Benedict , J. Benson , J. Horse, Bird and Man. Amherst , Benton , S. Benveniste , E. II: Pouvoir, droit, religion. Benz , F.
Rome , L'expansion et la colonisation grecques. Berciu , D. Romania before Burebista. New York, washington , Bucharest , Bergk , T. Poetae Lyrici Graeci II. Amsterdam , Beyer , G. Bichir , Gh. Bielefeld , E. Schmuck Archaeologia Homerica C. Bierbrier , M.
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